The Nizam and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
Post-independence India saw communal tensions. Hindu Mahasabha and pro-Hindu elements within the Congress itself became vocal. MIM was not lagging behind. No amount of detail would hide the stark truth that while the British granted independence, they divided India into two Hindu dominions – the rest of India, Muslim Pakistan.
It was based on the two-nation theory. However, supreme power was not transferred to either India or Pakistan.
This also made 563 princely states independent. They could join either India or Pakistan or even become independent. Taking advantage of the Crown’s non-incorporation clause (transfer of suzerainty) to the Indian government, the Nizam preferred to be independent rather than ‘joining’ either India or Pakistan. He embraced the moral superiority that was India for Hindus and Pakistan for Muslims; His rule, Hyderabad, was a plural state with many Hindus.
Being a Muslim ruler himself, he wanted to be worldly. He was morally and legally right. However, Indian leaders such as Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhai Patel and BR Ambedkar assured the Nizam that India would not be a theoretical state but a secular, democratic and welfare state.
The Nizam’s constitutional advisor, Sir Walter Moncton, was more pragmatic and outlined a plan of ‘association’ and ‘accession’ with the Indian government. This paved the way for the standstill agreement.
That is, the Nizam came from “independence” to “unification”, an autonomous state, similar to
the former Jammu & Kashmir with Art. 370. Isn’t it now the claiming center of states – federal rights of states?
The standstill agreement itself is a qualifying merger with India.
The Entente was anathema to the communal elements of both religions, the Communists and the Razakars. All of these groups fueled violence in the state. The Nizam government capitulated to the dictates of Kasim Razvi. The communists unleashed violence in the districts of Telangana. The Nizam’s police and army grew weak.
Therefore, at the end of his tether, the Nizam opted for a détente with India. India was also keen to solve the Hyderabad problem. As there was an international slur against India, the understanding was that the Nizam should not resist the Indian army and in return the Nizam would be allowed to govern the state within Indian rule. Therefore, when the army marched towards Hyderabad, C. Rajagopalchari,
The Governor-General of India sent a telegram to the Nizam reminding him of unity.
Precisely for this reason, Jawaharlal Nehru reprimanded KM Munshi for his excessive actions and asked him not to organize an event to receive the Indian Army and he was summarily dismissed from Hyderabad.
Ali Yavar Jung’s Private Papers Reveal Secret Information. It was BR Ambedkar who informed Ali Yavar Jung that the constitution of India would be
Honoring the assurances given by the Government of India to the Princes, and the Nizam would be made Rajpramukh for life along with the Rajas of Kashmir,
Mysore and Jaipur and get a pretty dedicated purse for life.
It was the Nizam who defrayed Ambedkar’s expenses when he visited London to attend the second round table conference. The Nizam had trusted Ambedkar and issued the firma on November 24, 1949.
In honor of unity, the Nizam introduced the Indian Constitution on January 26, 1950. Thus in 563 it became a princely state that merged with India!